Turbellarian taxonomic database

Aberrantospermata Convolutidae Notes

 Graff L v 1905 (citation)-
  	"Acoela with two genital openings, the female lying anterior the male, with a bursa seminalis,
  	with ovaries or with ovaries and yolk glands.  The mouth lies always on the ventral side 
  	somewhat back from the end of the body.  The bursa seminalis either lacks a chitinous nozzle
  	or these are present in one, two or a greater number.  Only in Plychoerus are the two ovaries
  	formed into separate ovar and yolk parts.  With the single exception of Convoluta the testes
  	occur always as separated follicles.  In general the family is organically much more complex
  	than the Proporidae and includes mostly broad and flat forms distinguished by a well developed
  	parenchymal musculature.  Length from 0.6209 mm.  Littoral or pelagic."
  Bohmig L 1908 (citation)- p 7 mentions.
  Bresslau E, Reisinger E 1928 (citation)- p 37, fig 13- plan of organization of this family.
  Karling TG 1940 (citation)- mentions p 223, 224.
  Marcus E 1946 (citation)- compares Convolutidae with Macrostomidae and discusses relationship.
  Westblad E 1948 (citation)- p 52- discusses family and separate Otocelididae and Hallangidae from it.
  	p 57- in key- in tribe Proandropora - Bursalea.  definition "Mouth ventral.  Pharynx O. Vagina
  	opening anterior to the penis."  Includes:
  			Mecynostomum	Polychoerus
  			Paraphanostoma	Convoluta
  Marcus E 1950 (citation)- defines genera and provides key for the following genera:
  			Paraphanostoma	Monochoerus
  			Aphanostoma		Anaperus 
  			Aechmalotus		Mecynostomum
  			Convoluta		Anaperus
  			Amphiscolops	Convoluta
  			Polychoerus		Cyrtomorpha
  			Amphicoerus 	Heterochoerus 
  Hyman LH 1951 (citation) -vol 2, p 121- notes presence of bursa in this family (as not in most acoels), 
  	one to many, connected with vagina or not-  bursal nozzle some.   
  	p 129- up to 64 seminal bursae- the family also has a vagina.  
  	p 132- "acoela with one or more seminal bursae, female or common gonopore and vagina."
  	List of genera, p 132:
  			Otocelis		Monochoerus
  			Aphanostoma		Palmenia
  			Aechmalotus		Tetraposthia
  			Convoluta		Anaperus
  			Amphiscolops	"and others"
  Hanson ED 1961 (citation)- lists as Family Convolutidae Graff 1905 - amend Westblad 1948.
  Beauchamp P de 1961 (citation)- following classification:
  	Subfamily Convolutoidea (Proandropora Bursalia)
  		Family Convolutidae
  			Genera	Convoluta
  		Family Myostomellidae
  			Genus	Myostomella
  		Family Hallangidae
  			Genera	Hallangia
  		Family Otocelidae
  			Genus	Otocelis							
  Antonius A 1968 (citation)- Key to genera which is same as key of Dorjes 1968 (citation)- p. 82 but
  	includes his new genera.  Includes the following genera:
  			Archaphanostom		Conaperta		Convoluta			Adenopea
  			Brachypea			Polychoerus		Oligochoerus		Amphiscolops
  			Diatomovora			Praeconvoluta	Postaphanostoma		Bursosaphia
  			Praeaphanostoma		Haplodiscus		Proconvoluta		Aphanostoma
  			Rimicola			Pseudoposthia	Avagina				Baltalimania
  			Faerlea				Oxyposthia		Pseudaphanostoma			
  Dorjes 1968 (citation)- p 80- definition and list of genera
  	"Acoels with a ventral mouth opening.  Outer muscle layer with an outer circular and inner 
  	longitudinal muscle layers.  Male copulatory organ with muscular tube shaped penis, often
  	very glandular.  Through lack of a seminal vesicle, this is formed as a direct inpocketing
  	of the epidermis, a ciliated male antrum absent in their cases.  Otherwise turned inward into
  	a seminal bursa or a muscular penis sac.  Male reproductive opening ventral, superterminal or
  	terminal at posterior end."
  	List of genera-
  	1.  Convoluta				8.  Faerlea				15.  Archaphanostoma
  	2.  Aphanostoma				9. 	Pseudaphanostoma	16.  Bursosaphia
  	3.  Haplodiscus				10. Pseudoposthia		17.  Postaphanostoma
  	4.  Polychoerus				11. Oxyposthia			18.  Praeaphanostoma
  	5.  Avagina					12. Baltalimania		19.  Praeconvoluta
  	6.  Amphiscolops			13. Oligochoerus		20.  Proconvoluta
  	7.  Rimicola				14. Diatomovora
 Karling TG 1974 (citation)- list p 9
 Faubel A, Kolasa J 1978 (citation)- Think their new genus Limnoposthia belongs to this
   		family.  [Bush places in Mecynostomidae].	
 Ehlers U, Doerjes J 1979 (citation)- list p 67, 70- description of species of this family from Galapagos 
 	in description p 48 of Otocelidae.
 Faubel A, Regier S 1983 (citation)- p. 3 add new genus Alluna - family (breif)- p. 5.

Notes from synonyms

Notes for Acoela Anaperidae

Beklemischev VN 1929 (citation)- p 232-235 structure of glandular spicules in.
Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- p 106-107 definition, discription, key to genera.
	"Acoels with terminal or subterminal lying of reproductive opening.  Seminal vesicle usually
	lacking, penis in these not invaginated.  Male antrum well developed, always with small, 
	cuticular, stimulating organs."  Type genus Anaperus Graff 1911
		5 genera, 10 species, discussion.
			1. Anaperus Graff 1911
			2. Achoerus Beklemischev 1915
			3. Paranaperus Westblad 1942
			4. Philachoerus Dorjes 1968
			5. Pseudanaperus Dorjes 1968
	Key p 107-8
		1. No color bearing rhabdites and surface pigment present.
			male accessory apparatus lacking------------------------------Paranaperus
		1. Coloring by rhabdites or surface pigment---------------------------------2
		2. Male accessory organs (also bursal nozzle) lacking-----------------------3
		2. Male accessory organs present--------------------------------------------4
		3. Coloring with rhabdites-------------------------------------------Achoerus
		3. Coloring by surface pigment----------------------------------Pseudanaperus
		4. No bursa seminalis, instead one to many nozzles with
			associated mass of sperm-----------------------------------------Anaperus
		4. Well developed bursa seminalis with a cuticularized nozzle----Philachoerus				

Beklemischev VN 1969 (citation)- Vol II, p 385 glandular spines in as part of copulatory system.
Karling TG 1974 (citation)- in list p 9.
Faubel A, Regier S 1983 (citation)- add new genus Praeanaperus discussion p 11.

Notes for Acoela Anaperidae

Hooge MD, Haye P, Tyler S, Litvaitis MK, Kornfield I  2002 (citation)- Phylogenetic relationships using 18S rDNA,
and morphological characters of sperm and body-wall musculature.

Return to Acoela Anaperidae