Turbellarian taxonomic database
Graff L v 1911 (citation)- definition p 341.
"Proporidae without a bursa seminalis, with a female genital canal
opening in front and many chitinous mouth pieces lying anterior to this but not joined
with it. Penis single. The mouth lies in the middle of the ventral side of the body,
a pharynx is lacking. In the reproductive region many glands ("Reiz organe") provided with
spinous ducts open onto the ventral surface as well as into the genital atrum. Body
elongated, plano-covex. Frontal gland anterior to the statocyst loosely arranged. The
testes consist of scattered follicles, the genital opening lies in the posterior 1/7th
of the body length. 1 species known." [Bush translation]
Luther A 1912 (citation)- p 53 diagnosis:
"Convolutidae with a single genital opening. Bursa seminalis represented by many body
spaces carrying sperm and each of which is provided with a liminated (lamellosen), ?
directed nozzle opening into the parenchyma. Body elongated, plano-covex."[Bush translation]
"Convolutidae with a single genital opening and a bursa seminalis. The bursal nozzles
laminated (lamellosen0, present in numbers 5-9, and directed anteriorly into the
parenchyma. Body elongated, cylindrical, with the ventral side drawn up in a groove (channel)."
Palmenia tvaerminnensis new species is type p 15-51.
also note Anaperus and his new genus Palmenia are close. Places Palmenia in this genus.
Describes species Palmenia tvaerminnensis in detail- male etc., with 5-10 nozzles is closest
to genus Anaperus.
Forsius R 1925 (citation)- changes Palmenia (preoccupied by Ephemeride (Arso 1910) to Palmeniola.
Beklemischev VN 1929 (citation)- on nature of glands in spicules.
Bresslau E 1933 (citation)- p 117, figure 111 reproductive organs.
Westblad E 1945 (citation)- definition of genus and discussion. Key to species. p 53 lists as
Palmeniola (Forsius 1925) and Palmenia as synonyms of Anaperus tvaerminnensis.
Westblad E 1946 (citation)- notes bursal nozzles in.
Marcus E 1947 (citation)- p 161 says species listed by Graff in 1910, p 2 later typey of his genus
Anaperus 1912, p 7.
Westblad E 1948 (citation)- p 35 on male copulatory organs of; p 43 adenodactyls in; p 46 male reproductive
organ; p 47 bursa in; p 54 comparison with Polychoerus and Amphiscolops says are really
an Opisthandropora Abursalia but he places it in the mixed group Proandropora Abursalia p 56 in key.
Hyman LH 1951 (citation)- vol 2, p 122 diagram of reproductive organs. p 132 notes prostatoids along
the male canal. p 77 notes muscle fibers in epithelial layer of this genus, illustration p 79
from Luther 1912.
Luther A 1960 (citation)- list Palmenia tvaerminnensis as synonym of Anaperus tvaerminnensis Luther 1912.
Palmenia tvaerminnensis Forsius R 1925 (citation) to Anaperus balticus.
Beklemischev VN 1963 (citation)- p 241 ectodermis in.
Ax P, Doerjes J 1966 (citation)- notes successive production of bursal and busal mouth pieces in this genus.
Steinbock O 1966 (citation)- mentions p 138.
Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- p 66 problem with this genus in Westblad's system. lists Palmenia Palmeniola
as synonyms of Anaperus tvaerminnensis. p 108 definition of genus.
lists 4 species-
Anaperus gardineri Graff 1911 Type
Anaperus sulcatus Beklemischev 1914
Anaperus tvaerminnensis Luther 1912
Anaperus rubellus Westblad 1945
Geographic distribution- North Atlantic into North Sea and to Cape Cod on West Coast.
Henley C 1974 (citation)- p 289 sperm are her type 1, illustration p 291; ganules in as per Luther 1912 p 292.
Newton WD 1975 (citation)- p 563 on spermatozoa in.