Turbellarian taxonomic database

Childiidae Paraphanostoma


Steinbock O 1931 (citation)- Convoluta macroposthia, description p 4-6, figures 2,3,4.
Westblad E 1940 (citation)- mentions members of this genus are subtidal forms.
Westblad E 1942 (citation)- definition of new genus, p 40 for Steinbock's macroposthia
	since it has longitudinal muscles outsid of circular muscles in the outer sheath.  Describes
	a series of new species.  Key to species p 40-41, Type- Paraphanostoma macroposthium.
	
Westblad E 1945 (citation)- in general discussion p 12, 15, 19, 21, 30, 36, 38, 44-46, 51, 57, 60.
	key p 43-44.  Adds a new species gracilis and a new iey.

Westblad E 1946 (citation)- notes that chitinous tubes for nozzle a lack of them both occur here p 7.
Westblad E 1948 (citation)- notes to  Paraphanostoma  p 116.	p 12 surface dpithelium in p 14; glands
	in p 15; rhabdites lacking; p 19 musculature- layers at surface are reversed from
	usual, etc p 20; p 21 statocyst muscles in p 25 are both muscles and nerves?; p 30 follicle
	cells in p 31 illustrate of ? type of sperm; p 36 series of illustrations of copulatory
	organs in p 37, also; p 38 etc. on reproduction; p 44-46 female reproductive organ; p 51 notes
	sunken epithelium and layers of muscle in this genus; p 57 in key; p 60 on eggs in - 
	follicle cells.

Marcus E 1949 (citation)- mentions p 9.	
Marcus E 1950 (citation)- discusses genus p 13, 14, 103, 11.	Distinction from Aphanostomum, 
	Convoluta, and Mecynostomum.  

Marcus E 1953 (citation)- note on distribution of this genus p 12.	
Marcus E 1954 (citation)- mentions p 427, 429, 480.
Steinbock O 1957 (citation)- in comparison with gastrotrichs p 136.
Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- definition p 111, type  Paraphanostoma macroposthium. p 320-322 brief
	description and illustration.  11 species:
	
	P. macroposthium Steinbock 1931
	P. brachyposthium Westblad 1942			P. westbladi Marcus 1950
	P. crassum Westblad 1942				P. etium Marcus 1954
	P. cycloposthium Westblad 1942			P. leptoposthium Riedl 1956
	P. dubium Westblad 1942					P. triangulipherum Westblad 1942
	P. submaculatum Westblad 1942
	P. gracilis Westblad 1945
	
	
Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- ecology of in Germany p 99, 88.
Beklemischev VN 1969 (citation)- Vol II, p 250-251, diagram of muscle fibers in.
Apelt G 1969 (citation)- p 304 and 313 on eggs and early embryology.
Hendelberg J 1969 (citation)- 
Henley C 1974 (citation)- p 289-290 notes Hendelberg J 1969 (citation) found sperm with terminal
	filaments.
	
Dorjes J, Karling TG 1975 (citation)- Swedish Museum of Natural History, European Atlantic, figure 20
	of feamle parts, related to P. etium and P. westbladi.	
	
Lauckner G 1980 (citation)- notes mesozoa reported in by Westblad E 1942 (citation).


Hooge MD 2001 (citation) - "Childia groenlandica posesses not only a unique pattern of musculature (Figs. 6,7)
but the layering of these muscles is also unique among acoels in that the relative positions of the
subepidermal body-wall muscle fibers are reversed, with longitudinal muscle fibers lying outside of inner
circular fibers, a condition first recognized by Luther (1912) (citation). These features, along with its
unusual paired male copulatory apparatus, suggests that the Childiidae as it is presently known is 
polyphyletic. Additional endorsement for polyphyly comes from preliminary ultrastructural and
immunocytochemical studies that sugges the sclerotized copulatory structures used to unite the group are
nonhomologous among several taxa (Raikova et al., 2001) (citation). I propose leaving Childia groenlandica
as the sole occupant of Childiidae and creating a new family, Actinoposthiidae, for the other childiid taxa."

Hooge MD, Haye P, Tyler S, Litvaitis MK, Kornfield I  2002 (citation)- Phylogenetic relationships using 18S
rDNA, and morphological characters of sperm and body-wall musculature.- "The unique nature of C. groenlandica
led Hooge 2001 (citation) to remove the other species in the Childiidae to a new family, the Actinoposthiidae.
The gene tree supports this taxonomic revision; however, some further changes may be necessary, inasmuch
as members of the actinoposthiid genus Paraphanostoma also have circular muscles (Westblad, 1942) (citation)."


Tekle YI, Raikova OI, Ahmadzadeh A, Jondelius U 2005 (citation) - Found the monophyly of Childia and Paraphanostoma to be supported by molecular and morphological data. Paraphanostoma synonymized with Childia; all former members of Paraphanostoma transferred to Childia.