Steinbock O 1931 (citation)- Convoluta macroposthia, description p 4-6, figures 2,3,4. Westblad E 1940 (citation)- mentions members of this genus are subtidal forms. Westblad E 1942 (citation)- definition of new genus, p 40 for Steinbock's macroposthia since it has longitudinal muscles outsid of circular muscles in the outer sheath. Describes a series of new species. Key to species p 40-41, Type- Paraphanostoma macroposthium. Westblad E 1945 (citation)- in general discussion p 12, 15, 19, 21, 30, 36, 38, 44-46, 51, 57, 60. key p 43-44. Adds a new species gracilis and a new iey. Westblad E 1946 (citation)- notes that chitinous tubes for nozzle a lack of them both occur here p 7. Westblad E 1948 (citation)- notes to Paraphanostoma p 116. p 12 surface dpithelium in p 14; glands in p 15; rhabdites lacking; p 19 musculature- layers at surface are reversed from usual, etc p 20; p 21 statocyst muscles in p 25 are both muscles and nerves?; p 30 follicle cells in p 31 illustrate of ? type of sperm; p 36 series of illustrations of copulatory organs in p 37, also; p 38 etc. on reproduction; p 44-46 female reproductive organ; p 51 notes sunken epithelium and layers of muscle in this genus; p 57 in key; p 60 on eggs in - follicle cells. Marcus E 1949 (citation)- mentions p 9. Marcus E 1950 (citation)- discusses genus p 13, 14, 103, 11. Distinction from Aphanostomum, Convoluta, and Mecynostomum. Marcus E 1953 (citation)- note on distribution of this genus p 12. Marcus E 1954 (citation)- mentions p 427, 429, 480. Steinbock O 1957 (citation)- in comparison with gastrotrichs p 136. Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- definition p 111, type Paraphanostoma macroposthium. p 320-322 brief description and illustration. 11 species: P. macroposthium Steinbock 1931 P. brachyposthium Westblad 1942 P. westbladi Marcus 1950 P. crassum Westblad 1942 P. etium Marcus 1954 P. cycloposthium Westblad 1942 P. leptoposthium Riedl 1956 P. dubium Westblad 1942 P. triangulipherum Westblad 1942 P. submaculatum Westblad 1942 P. gracilis Westblad 1945 Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- ecology of in Germany p 99, 88. Beklemischev VN 1969 (citation)- Vol II, p 250-251, diagram of muscle fibers in. Apelt G 1969 (citation)- p 304 and 313 on eggs and early embryology. Hendelberg J 1969 (citation)- Henley C 1974 (citation)- p 289-290 notes Hendelberg J 1969 (citation) found sperm with terminal filaments. Dorjes J, Karling TG 1975 (citation)- Swedish Museum of Natural History, European Atlantic, figure 20 of feamle parts, related to P. etium and P. westbladi. Lauckner G 1980 (citation)- notes mesozoa reported in by Westblad E 1942 (citation).
Hooge MD 2001 (citation) - "Childia groenlandica posesses not only a unique pattern of musculature (Figs. 6,7) but the layering of these muscles is also unique among acoels in that the relative positions of the subepidermal body-wall muscle fibers are reversed, with longitudinal muscle fibers lying outside of inner circular fibers, a condition first recognized by Luther (1912) (citation). These features, along with its unusual paired male copulatory apparatus, suggests that the Childiidae as it is presently known is polyphyletic. Additional endorsement for polyphyly comes from preliminary ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies that sugges the sclerotized copulatory structures used to unite the group are nonhomologous among several taxa (Raikova et al., 2001) (citation). I propose leaving Childia groenlandica as the sole occupant of Childiidae and creating a new family, Actinoposthiidae, for the other childiid taxa." Hooge MD, Haye P, Tyler S, Litvaitis MK, Kornfield I 2002 (citation)- Phylogenetic relationships using 18S rDNA, and morphological characters of sperm and body-wall musculature.- "The unique nature of C. groenlandica led Hooge 2001 (citation) to remove the other species in the Childiidae to a new family, the Actinoposthiidae. The gene tree supports this taxonomic revision; however, some further changes may be necessary, inasmuch as members of the actinoposthiid genus Paraphanostoma also have circular muscles (Westblad, 1942) (citation)."
Notes for the valid (accepted) taxonomic name
Return to Childiidae Paraphanostoma