Turbellarian taxonomic database

Convoluta pelagica notes

Lohner L, Micoletzky H 1911 (citation)- is pelagic from Gulf of Trieste.  described this species- 
	illustrated- brief description- for full description see Lohner L, Micoletzky H 1911 (citation).

Lohner L, Micoletzky H 1911 (citation)-full description and illustration.  on concrements of 
	material in - used "murexidilaton??". also on excretory canals in- also worked with vital 
	dyes on- color illustration to show effect of neutral re- etc.  This species had been 
	confused with Convoluta henseni but further studies show they differ in outer wall, nervous
	system, zoochlorella (present here- absent in C. henseni) and geographic distribution- this
	from Adriatic- henseni from equatorial Atlantic.  Is not a small C. schultzei- see table
	on p 408-9.  
  	Length- 0.3-0.68 x 0.4 micrometers- enrolled sides- various shapes on contraction- green
  	zoochlorella clumped in parenchyma.	 Dark orange epithelial pigment in clubshapes- groups
  	of pigment 2.5 x 1.5 micrometers over entire animal in older animals. 
  Anatomy and Histology- fixatives, sections and stains, etc.
   Epithelium- 3-4 micrometer layer, distinct cells with small nuclei base- ciliated but cilia
  	lacking in sucker area on anterior third of ventral side and thicker muscle here.	
   Mucous glands- dorsal and lateral- form a frontal organ (comparison of types.
   No rhabdites.
   Muscles- outer circular, next diagonal and inner longitudinal- longtitudinal is thickest- 
    also some dorso-ventral.
   Mouth- pharynx simplex at begining of 2nd body third.
   Parenchyma- histology of the network etc. p 389-392- definition of parts of
   Nervous system- description of brain- shape- longitudinal nerves (lateral and dorsal are
   	most conspicuous). (Weakly developed ventral nerves).
   Sense Organs- pair of small straw yellow- can be seen, p 394 only when alive- not in sections.
    many eyeless species should be further studied.
   Statocyst- p 395. lies in ventral hollow of brain.  Nerve from dorsal posterior side in a
    curve to brain structure- etc. in detail.
   Reproductive Structures- male follecular testes on each side in brain region- ventrally but to
    each side of ovaries.
    	spermatazoa- 270 micrometers long like C. roscoffensis and C. schultzei- quotes from 
    	  graff. to study stained live animals with neutral red and squashed them.
    	vas deferens- none- sperm wander thru tissue spaces.
    	penis- is penis type A(Bohmig 1895)- egg shaped.  illustration. sack epithelium is 
    	  glandular, no seminal vesicle.  Penis sac of epithelium with longitudinal and ciruclar
    	  muscles.  Circular and longitudinal muscles connect to outer wall layers.  Antrum flat,
    	  epithelium continues into lining of penis.
    Female-	female reproductive organs- p 400.
    	ovary- no outer membrane- on lateral side outside of testes.
    	oviducts- note taken over by spaces in parenchyma.
    	bursa- wall of delicate parenchymal channels and single muscle fiber- epithelium cannot
    	  be determined but it may be glandular and varys from time to time.  Nozzle- cylindrical,
    	  slightly curved, chitinous- crowned by gland cells on inner end- to 60 micrometers long x
    	  15 micrometers.
  Biology- a not near coast dweller but pelagic and not in harbors- more common further south in
  	Adriatic at Rovigno, mostly in Sept-Nov- ripe animals in May- reproduce in Sept-Nov?
  	Food- zoochlorella in clumps- etc on p 401-403.
  On Systematics of "green" Convoluta- p 403-407- Gyrator viridis of W. Busch 1851 (citation) in 
  	Adriatic may be this - long quote on this as it may have been Monocheroerus illardatus.
  	Pereyaslawzewa D 1892 (citation)- C. viridis is not this.  A new species, etc. confusion here
  	p 407- definition of species C. pelagica.  p 408-9 comparison of C. pelagica and C. schultzei. 	  
Meixner J 1925 (citation)- comment on p. 599.
Steinbock O 1933 (citation)- synonym, occurs- did not find.
Bresslau E 1933 (citation)- shows coloring with neutral red- its concentration in vacuoles in
	digestive parenchyma, etc. also an individual with crustacean inside- length 0.3-0.7 mm x
	0.4 mm - green with zoochlorellae and algae free part transparent with fine orange to red
	brown pigment granules in plankton of Gulf of Trieste.

Marcus E 1948 (citation)- refers to this - compares with his Convoluta vexillaria.
Marcus E 1949 (citation)- long comparison of this with the pelagic species Convoluta henseni.
	Concludes they are separate or basis of no concentric muscles in this species and 
	presence of cilia in ?? in this species.		
Marcus E 1950 (citation)- mentions p 20.
Marcus EDB-R 1955 (citation)- mentions p 23.
Antonius A 1968 (citation)- lists this species, p 375 with parenchyma type penis without cilia.
Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- lists.