Turbellarian taxonomic database

Platyhelminthes Catenulida Notes


Bresslau E 1933 (citation)-
Karling TG 1940 (citation)- definition p 2 and 9, "Archoophora with gut and pharynx simplex.  Sometimes with
    statocyst with 1 or 2 lithospheres.  Medial dorsally opening of the main stem of excretory system.
    Male pore dorsal in anterior body.  Female ducts and accessory organs locking.  Fresh water."
    see also p 223-225, and 228.  (= Catenulida Meixner 1924, Notandropora Reisinger 1924).

Marcus E 1945 (citation)-  "pharynx of the simplex type" and quotes Graff 1913/15 as defining above "a tubular
    invagination of the integument-"  Marcus adds "muscles for dilation in the form of radiating fibers
    from the pharyngeal wall, glands and nerves can be attached to it from the elongated epidermal part
    going inwards."  pharynx in asexual reproduction is formed from "stem cells" not by invagination of 
    epithelium in Stenostomum and Microstomum and others dissected by Marcus- also shown by reversal of
    muscle layer in epithelium and pharynx- problems of definition here- concludes pharynx simplex is
    characterized by "lack of a pharyngeal pocket or a long oral tube."  [Bush translation]

    also long citation on asexual reproduction in this group p 54-65, on length of chains, order of
    formation, description of process, etc.

Marcus E 1945 (citation)- definition of order.
    "Simplex pharynx with sac-shaped gut or intestine without diverticula, parenchyma not well developed,
    a single median protonephridium doubled on itself, statocyst present or absent, and reproduction more by
    the vegetative process of fission than by sexual means, perhaps with the exception of Rhynchoscolex."

            Stenostomidae                       Chordariidae                    Catenulidae
            --------------------------------    -----------------------------   -----------------------
     brain  2 anterior and 2 posterior lobes    brain oviod, compact without    ovoid brain, without or 
            clearly separated and near          divisions and near front        with a constriction and
            mouth                               far from mouth                  without a distinct
                                                                                subdivision into anterior
                                                                                and posterior lobes

    preoral groups of sensor cells with         ciliated groove may occur       brain at base or half-way
            ciliated pits and in long,                                          up preoral zone which is 
            precerebral series

            excretophores on interior wall      excretophores present           excretophores absent

    diagnosis: "Small turbellaria 0.3-1.2 mm long by 0.03-0.3 mm in diameter, with unpaired excretory tubes.
        Excretory canal commences in the posterior region of the body, curves with an ascending tube 
        forward to anterior where it recurves on itself and descends to open in the caudal zone.  The 
        protonephridia is located on the median line dorsal to the intestine (except 
        Stenostomum ventronephrium Nuttycombe), and ventral to the cerebrum.  Nervous system composed of the 
        cerebrum and of various pairs of longitudinal nerves from anterior to posterior.  In all the
        genera with the exception of Stenostomum (always with a statocyst) there occurs species with
        and species without statocysts.  Pharynx simple; intestine pouch or sac shaped without diverticula. 
        Parenchyme generally little developed.  Reproducing, with the exception of Rhynchoscolex more
        vegetatively by paratomis division than    by germ cells- gonads not known in all the genera- Testis
        situated dorsally and opening thru a penis in the anterior dorsal region.  Ovaries endolecithal.  
        In Rhynchoscolex, it appears most probably reproduction is parthenogenetic.  Fresh water, moist
        earth and rarely in salt water."

    Marcus divides into 3 families and 5 genera- Key p 8:

    1. Cerebrum with distinct lobes, 2 anterior and 2 posterior--------------------------5
    1. Cerebrum without distinct subdivisions into anterior and posterior lobes----------2

    2. Cerebrum situated almost at the mouth, at the base of the preoral zone 
        or at nearly the level of that region--------------------------------------------3
    2. Cerebrum situated at the anterior part of the preoral zone -----------------Chordarium

    3. In the pre-bursal zone is found a ventral or ventro-lateral, large
        prominent ring, ciliated and provided with a longitudinal channel----------Suomina
    3. A prominent ring does not occur preorally-----------------------------------------4

    4. The lumen of the intestine reaches approximately to the middle of 
        posterior buccal part of the body------------------------------------------Catenula
    4. The intestine extends as far as the interior of the worm; the last
        1/5th or at most 1/4th of the intestine may lack a lumen-------------------Dasyhormus

    5. Adult worms present, as a general way of life, signs of division------------Stenostomum
    5. After 1-2 divisions in larval stage or the pre-adult, no divisions occur----Rhynchoscolex

Marcus E 1948 (citation)- p 120 mentions in history of Rhabdocoela.
Westblad E 1948 (citation)- p 66 definition.  " Archoophora with true, undivided gut and pharynx simplex.  Basal
    membrane present (thin).  With or without a statocyst.  Protonephridia present (unpaired main duct).  
    Male reproductive glands follicular, female unpaired.  Female genital opening dorsal in the anterior
    part of body, feamle ducts and genital opening.  Fresh water.  Several genera." [Bush translation].

    Comments on Karling's placing of Catenulida near base(?) of Turbellaria, doesn't agree-

Marcus E 1949 (citation)- reference p 14.
Hyman LH 1951 (citation)- p 104 notes ciliated gastrodermis in; p 137 discussion of this as suborder of
    Rhabdocoels, few fresh-water genera with:
        - simple pharynx
        - single median protonephridium
        - 4 pairs of longitudinal nerve chords
        - ciliated gastrodermis
    list of genera and notes on some; reproduce asexually; form chains; and are seldom seen as male and
    female, but has been studied in Stenostomum; p 190 notes a fresh water group that some have returned
    to brackish water; p 194 notes Euglenoids in.

Hyman LH 1959 (citation)- comment on position of.
Luther A 1960 (citation)- refers to Marcus E 1945 (citation) and Marcus E 1945 (citation).  Says Catenulida
    (= Notandropora Reisinger).  Gives key, p 22:

    1. Brain undivided, at the base or in the middle part of the head lobe,
        with a ciliated groove ventral or ventro-lateral between the base of the 
        head lobe and the rest of the body, with or without a statocyst-------------Catenulidae (2)
    1. Brain with paired anterior and posterior lobes and anterior to this 
        with a group of sense cells often arranged pseudometamerically,
        with or without a statocyst-------------------------------------------------Stenostomidae (3)

    2. A broad, long ciliated bulge ventral and ventro-lateral anterior to the 
        mouth- with cross furrows(in the longitudinal direction of the whole body),
        gut filling a large part of the post oral body------------------------------Suomina

    2. No cross running bulge anterior to the mouth, gut cavity mostly only
        extending to about the middle of the post oral body-------------------------Catenula

    3. Growing animal usually forming colonies (chains) thru cross 
        dividing, ciliated pits present---------------------------------------------(4)

    3. Developing animal not forming chains; only 1-2 divisions in larval
        and young stages.  Anterior end of body (prostomium) very long.
        Ciliated pits lacking-------------------------------------------------------Rhynchoscolex

    4.  Without gut muscles---------------------------------------------------------Stenostomum
    4.  With gut muscles------------------------------------------------------------Myostenostomum

Applewhite PB, Morowitz, HJ 1966 (citation)-  use Catenulida for studies on maze learning- habituation shown.
Young JO 1970 (citation)-
Karling TG 1974 (citation)- in key p 12, in list p 9 and 14.  On phylogeny, p 8.
Sterrer W, Rieger RM 1974 (citation)- new family is the Retronectidae.  Discussion of order in general, p 74-79.
Rieger RM 1981 (citation)- electron microscopy structures, muscles, nerves p 220-221, basement membranes p 229,
    also 216- on evolutionary relationships p 225.

Boaden PJS 1981 (citation)- Oxygen requirements, p 1206, 110.
Doe DA 1981 (citation)- On pharynx simplex here, not coronatus.  Phylogeny of.
Faubel A 1983 (citation)- p 26-27 notes ciliated male tract in.

Kolasa J 2001 (citation)- List of North American species of Turbellaria and Nemertea, including Catenulida.  Key
to Orders and Suborders of freshwater turbellaria, collection, culturing, and preservation.  Antatomy,
physiology, ecology, research problems, and taxonomic keys.

Kolasa J 1991 (citation)- List of North American species of Turbellaria and Nemertea, including Catenulida.  Key
to Orders and Suborders of freshwater turbellaria, collection, culturing, and preservation.  Antatomy,
physiology, ecology, research problems, and taxonomic keys.

Hooge MD 2001 (citation)- "Evolution of body-wall musculature in the Platyhelminthes (Acoelomorpha, Catenulida,

Rogozin AG 1994 (citation)- "Key to freshwater invertebrates of Russia and adjacent lands."  Taxa included
      Bothromesostoma Braun 1885
      Castrada Schmidt 1862 
      Castrella Fuhrmann 1900  
      Catenulida Meixner 1924  
      Dalyellia Flemming 1822  
      Gieysztoria Ruebush & Hayes 1939  
      Macrostomida Karling 1940  
      Macrostomum Schmidt 1848 
      Mesostoma Ehrenberg 1837 
      Microdalyellia Gieysztor 1938  
      Microstomum Schmidt 1848 
      Olisthanella Voigt 1892 
      Opistomum Schmidt 1848  
      Phaenocora Ehrenberg 1835  
      Prorhynchidae Hallez 1894  
      Stenostomidae Vejdovsky 1880  
      Stenostomum Schmidt 1848 
      Strongylostoma Orsted 1843  

Cavalier-Smith T 1998 (citation)- Revised six kingdoms. Infraphylum for Catenulida and Acoela
Carranza S, Baguna J, Riutort M 1997 (citation)- "Are the Platyhelminthes a monophyletic primitive group? An 
assessment using 18S rDNA sequences."  Looks at Rhabditophora, Acoela, Catenulida.  Species of Turbellaria
used include the following:  Crenobia alpina, Dendrocoelum lacteum, Monocelis lineata, Archiloa rivularis,
Geocentrophora sp., Mesocastrada sp., Nemertinoides elongatus, Urastoma sp., Macrostomum tuba, Microstomum
lineare, Discocelis tigrina, Planocera multitentaculata, Stenostomum leucops, Convoluta pulchra, Convoluta
naikaiensis.  New sequences reported for many of these species.

Reuter M, Lehtonen M, Wikgren M 1988 (citation)- "Immunocytochemical evidence of neuroactive substances in
flatworms of different taxa--a comparison."  Species studied:  Acoela sp., Archiloa unipunctata, Polycelis
nigra, Microdalyellia fusca, Promesostoma marmoratum, Typhloplana viridata, Gyratrix hermaphroditus.

Ehlers U 1994 (citation)- "On the ultrastructure of the protonephridium of Rhynchoscolex simplex and the basic
systematization of the Catenulida (Plathelminthes)."

Moraczewski J 1981 (citation)- "The fine structure of some Catenulida (Turbellaria Archoophora)."  Species
included in the study were Catenula leptocephala and Catenula lemnae.

Rieger RM 1978 (citation)- "Multiple ciliary structure in developing spermatozoa of marine Catenulida

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