Turbellarian taxonomic database

Convolutidae Conaperta Notes

Antonius A 1968 (citation)- defines new genus and moves some species of Convoluta here-
	p 309- def "Bursa with a cuticular nozzle, genital openings combined, always lying 
	ventrally.  Common genital atrium, when present, mostly ciliated, copulatory organ
	consists of a muscular, tube-shaped penis, always unciliated, surrounded by a muscular
	seminal vesicle.  Both usually very glandular.  Vagina often ciliated, seldom with stimulatory
	organs.  Brain insunken.  Anterior glands withy the exception of 1 species always paired 
	into a frontal organ.  Scarcely enrolled lateral edges.  Trimmed with symbiotic alge,
	rhabdites, pigment and pigment eyes and concretions very distinctive."
		Lists species:
		flavibacillum		urua
		lineata				actuosa
		norwegica			variomorpha
		vexillaria			krana
		westbladi			thela

		a. Two possible ways of development.
			1.  by combination of ciliated common atrium and ciliated vagina and 
				ciliated atrium to penis.  Then loss of cilia in some parts or a fully
				parenchymatic origin for part.
			2.  by an original single inpocketing (common genital atrium) divides proximally
				into male and female parts. 	
		b.  possibly a development of female elements not from epidermal but added to 
				dermal male parts by parenchyma?
		Inner ciliated genital organ the primitive type.  Common genital pore a derived
		character: genus Conaperta separated from Convoluta (etc on history of Convoluta)			

Ehlers U, Doerjes J 1979 (citation)- list p 3, 68.
	In the genus species differentiated on basis of:
	color of animal
	vagina- clearly differentialed or 
	nozzle- length
	bursa- muscular or thin walled or enticularized
	vagina- ciliated
	penis- layers, cuticular needles
	position of ovary- ? testes ? [Bush note: doubtful as character- depends on stage of 
	In all:
		- outer circular and inner longitudinal			
		- large frontal glands
		- nuclei not sunken
		- body not enrolled
		- common genital pore
		- food- diatomes and forams
		- penis- outer longitudinal muscle and inner circular muscle.

Notes from synonyms

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