Turbellarian taxonomic database

Polychoerus caudatus Notes

Mark EL 1892 (citation)- original description.  p 298-309., pl 31, fig 1-22.  describes genus
	and species.  Long description with beautiful illustrations.

Buchanan F 1892- Zoological Record 29:72.  Zoological Record chapter misspells Polychoerus
	as Polychaerus referring to Mark EL 1892 (citation) citation.  Buchanan is chapter editor.

Verrill AE 1893 (citation)- "Caudal cirri one to five.  In adult examples there are generally
	1-3 slender, pale, translucent caudal cirri--sometimes, in large specimens, another
	samller pair is developed external to the latteer, on the posterior lobes" etc. etc.
	extended description and figures.  Plate 41, 11 and 11a and plate 43, 6-10.
	Length 3-4 mm, breadth 1.5 to 2 mm.
	Common from Great Egg Harbor, NJ to Casco Bay, ME- taken in New Haven Harbor; Noank, Conn;
		Newport, RI; Woods Hole, MA; and Quahog Bay, ME.  Note eggs on shells and stones, etc.
		possibly "eggs escape from mouth"?

Gardiner EG 1895 (citation)- anatomy, egg and p 155-174 plates 10 & 11 on embryology.
Bohmig L 1895 (citation)- mentions p 35 and lists p 44.
Gardiner EG 1898 (citation)-
Graff L v 1904 (citation)- "better diagnosis" of th genus - (he says).
Graff L v 1904-08 (citation)- in Bronn- p 1984 - def of genus.  Depicts Polychoerus caudatus
	plate I.15 and its embryology Plate IV, 20-31.
Stevens NM, Boring AM 1905 (citation)- on regeneration in.
Child CM 1907 (citation)- experiments on form regeneration.
Graff L v 1910 (citation)- notes from U.S.
Graff L v 1911 (citation)- says collected on ulven in Little Harbor and Hotel Breakwater.
Lohner L 1911 (citation)- looked for excretory canals in.
Luther A 1912 (citation)- brief mention of.
Lohner L 1913 (citation)- Compares with species of Amphiscolops
Wilhelmi J 1913 (citation)- outline with muscles p 23, anatomy with muscles p 85, also 24, 103, 113.
Allee WC 1923 (citation)- lists it as collected at Woods Hole.  
Keil EM 1929 (citation)- used this in regeneration experiments at Woods Hole.
Bresslau E 1933 (citation)- p 55 gig 24.4- exterior view- from Nachon Island, Woods Hole.
	length to 4 mm x 1.4mm- flattened- color red orange through yellow and purple pigment
	granules, etc.  p 204 fig 202- regeneration and ? in.
An der Lan H 1936 (citation)- mentions.
Westblad E 1946 (citation)- notes nozzles on bursa.
Westblad E 1948 (citation)- p 30 on presense of a germvitellarien in- not a real germvitellarien
	but more like that of Hallangia - abortive eggs add to others to nourish them etc.
Hyman LH 1951 (citation) -vol 2, p 175 notes study of embryology of this by Gardner EG 1895 (citation)-	
	Discusses acoel embryology.
Ax P 1963 (citation)-discusses presence of tails in this non sand form, may be sensory.
Hadzi J 1963 (citation)- p 212- on embryology of - comment.  p 222- on symbionts in.
Steinbock O 1963 (citation)- p 49 mentions work on cleavage of.

[Bush note: Collected by dredging at  Woods Hole, Mass 6/23/64]
[Bush note: Collected from shelly sandy mud by Bob Smith from Sewage Beach, Virginia Key, Miami
	Oct 1964; drawings and sectioned.  is this caudatus?- did not have orange color of those
	I saw in Woods Hole.]
[Bush note: collected from sand at ? November 1965.]	
[Bush note: many specimens finally found July 1969 on Nantucket in Great Bay not far from
	Wauwinet- near Swopes House- under scale of shells in intertidal zone.]
Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- lists.
Ax P, Doerjes J 1966 (citation)- note "brain" surrounds the statocyst.
Kato K 1968 (citation)- on development of purple eggs in.
Apelt G 1969 (citation)- p 268 notes Gardiner's observation of copulation in- is first for
	acoels Gardiner EG 1898 (citation)-

Henley C 1974 (citation)- p 296- notes Mark EL 1892 (citation)- observations on sperm in bursa.
	p 299 - on ultrastructure of sperm.	

October 2003
MDH collected several specimens of what apppeared to be P. caudatus from subtidal sand at Oak Island, NC.
Sexually mature specimens were smaller than MA specimens (those described by Verill) - approx. 1.3 - 2.4 mm 
long and 600 ┬Ám wide (MA specimens are approx. twice that size). NC specimens only had 2 bursal nozzles,
while MA specimens have many (up to 50). Histological sections of NC specimens revealed a cop organ that
could not be distinguished from MA specimens.

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