Turbellarian taxonomic database

Crucimusculata Proporidae Notes

Graff L v 1882 (citation)- give definition:
  	"Acoela with one genital opening, without female accessory apparatus (bursa seminalis),
  	with weak penis.  The single genus Proporus lacks a pharynx, the mouth opening lies behind
  	the otolith and there are two well defined eyes.  The body is small and oval, broadly 
  	round at both ends (1-1.5 mm long)". [BUSH L translation]
  Graff L v 1904 (citation)- definition "Acoela with one genital pore, without or with a bursa
  	seminalis, with ovary."

  Graff L v 1905 (citation), p 4.
	"Acoela with a single genital opening, with or without a bursa seminalis, with ovaries. 
	Testes sometimes follicular, sometimes compact (Otocelis rubropunctata, Haplodiscus).
	Location of the mouth and length of the sometimes almost completely lacking pharynx varies.
	Elongated, enrolled or platelike in form, from 018-2.5 mm.  Littoral or pelagic, one species
	(Haplodiscus incola) parasitic."  Tierreich - Graff L v 1905 (citation), p 4.  3 genera
  Hyman LH 1951 (citation)- p 128- notes there are no female organs (ducts, bursae, etc.) in this 
	family.  p 132- lists in this family "all other acoels that lack feamle ducts" includes:
	Proporus, Haplodiscus, Remicola, Achoerus, Afronta, Childia, Avagina.
  Westblad E 1948 (citation)- p 52, 55, 56 in the key take out of this family Diopisthoporidae for 
	new family and for Haploposthiidae, the genera Haploposthia, Paranaperus, Paraproporus, 
	Afronta and Childia- also remove Achoerus to the Tribe Proandropera-Abursalia.                    
  Beauchamp P de 1961 - Lists the genus Proporus.
  Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- definition of family- type genus Proporus O Schmidt 1852 (citation)
	"Acoela with long ciliated pharynx tube. Pharynx opens frontally or on ventral front end. Male
	copulatory organ opens terminally at hind end. Vesicula seminalis present; penis can be lacking.
	Antrum masculinum either long and tubiform or inconspicuous."	
	Genus Proporus "Through pigment colored or uncolored.  Outer muscle layer normal.
	Brain insunk.  Mouth opening frontal or in ventral anterior end.  This opens proximally
	into a long, ciliated pharynx tube.  Ovary paired or unpaired.  Testes diffuse.  Female
	accessory apparatus lacking.  Male copulatory organ at posterior end.  Seminal vesicle
	always present, a penis may be lacking.  Male antrum long and tube like or plain."
  Dorjes J 1971 (citation)-	
  Bohmig L 1895 (citation)- p 36, brief definition "acoels with one reproductive opening."	
  Crezee M 1975 (citation)- p 840-41- on epithelial pharynx in.
  Steinbock O 1966 (citation)- mentions p 130.	
  Wilhelmi J 1913 (citation)- lists with genera.

Notes from synonyms

Notes for Acoela Haploposthiidae

Westblad E 1948 (citation)- p 52 sets up this family as having "a ventral mouth without a pharynx
	combined with Proporidae characteristic reproductive system." 

	p 55-56, key as follows:

	Tribe Opisthandropora- Abursalia
	Family Haploposthidae- "Mouth ventrl.  Pharynx open.  Male and female gonads with respect to
		position and appearance variable but never combined into a compact gondad unit.
		A1- Male antrum +- long and tube shaped.  
			B1- Reproductive glands [gonads] often mixed but the 
				female +- lying dorsally----------------------------------genus Haploposthia
			B2- male and female gondads separate, both the male and the female paired;
				the female gonad lying ventrally--------------------------genus Paranaperus
		A2- Male antrum short
			B1- A short penis; small and +- round in cross section
				C1- Frontal glands small (not "a frontal organ"); ovary unpaired;
					copulatory organ with weak cutecularized needles------genus Paraproporus
				C2- Frontal glands lacking.  Ovaries paired.  Copulatory organs without
					cuticular needles-------------------------------------genus Afronta (Hyman)
			B2- Double, stylet formed penis.  Fairly large, flat shape----genus Childia
Marcus E 1950 (citation)- points out family is characterized by absense of a pharynx.  genera belonging
	to it are characterized as follows:
		Haploposthia- colored rhabdite gland
		Paranaperus- a penis and spacious atrium
		Paraproporus- by penis rods
		Childia- double copulatory organs
		Afronta- 1 species only with orange spots
		Kuma- large frontal glands, short atrium and no penis cuticularized atrium.
Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- p 94-95.  Definition- "Acoels with very simple copulatory organs.  These 
	consist of a tube-shaped male antrum and a keg-like seminal vesicle.  Both the antrum as
	well as the vesicle can be mutually or entirely lacking.  As penis is not formed 
	[Haploposthia albiventer Marcus and H. rubra (An der Lan) with an extremely small penis
	papilla].  Male reproductive opening terminal, subterminal or ventral.  Mouth opening ventral."
	Type of family: genus Haploposthia An der Lan 1936- 11 genera with 32 species.
	1.  Haploposthia		7.  Parahaplogonaria
	2.  Afronta				8.  Parahaploposthia
	3.  Kuma				9.  Pseudohaplogonaria
	4.  Adenocauda			10. Pseudokuma
	5.  Deuterogonaria 		11. Simplicomorpha
	6.  Haplogonaria		
	Discussion of family on p 95, p 95-96 key to genera.
Faubel A 1976 (citation)- lists.
Ehlers U, Doerjes J 1979 (citation)- discussion p 29, 48, and 70.
Faubel A 1983 (citation)- p 26, notes ciliated male tract here.

Notes for Acoela Haploposthiidae

Raikova OI 1989 (citation)- "The fine structure of the nervous system of both plexus-type and that with formed
nerve trunks was studied in representatives of four families of Acoela."  Families and species studied
        Haploposthia opisthorchis
        Actinoposthia beklemischevi
        Anaperus biaculeatus
        Aphanostoma virescens

Descriptions of synapses, vesciles with granules in neurites, sensillae as associated fine structure are

Notes for Acoela Polycanthiidae

Hooge MD 2003 (citation) - The copulatory organ of the Polycanthiidae is entirely unique among known species of
the Acoela.  While members of the genus Pseudaphanostoma in the family Convolutidae have muscular copulatory
organs that also open terminally, their seminal vesicle musculature is not nearly as well developed, and all
members of the genus Pseudaphanostoma have invaginated penes.  
The phylogenetic position of the Polycanthiidae within the Acoela is uncertain.  In spite of the above-listed
differences between the Polycanthiidae and Pseudaphanostoma, their mutual possession of muscular, terminally
opening copulatory organs and similar body-wall musculature may be indicative of a close phylogenetic

Return to Acoela Polycanthiidae