Turbellarian taxonomic database

Proporus venenosus Notes

Proporus venenosus 
   Schmidt O 1852 (citation)- described this species.  Also define genus.
   Diesing KM 1862 (citation)- lists Schizopora venenosa as synonym of his Celidotes venenosa. 
   Uljanin W 1870 (citation)- in Leuckart 1871 (citation) as Schizopora venenosa p 461.
   Graff L v 1878 (citation)- refers to Uljanin in Leuckart's review- as on
   	table I figure 7.  Mentions that as a result of studying Schizoporus venenosus he agrees
   	with Uljanin that there are Turbellaria entirely "darmlos".  Diagram ?? in interior as in cliates-
   	discussion and brief description p 463.
   Graff L v 1886 (citation)- reports this from Lesina.
   Graff L v 1891 (citation)- Brief description with note.
   Wagner F v 1891 (citation)- in review of Graff's monograph of 1891, p 654, 656, 663.
   Pereyaslawzewa S 1892 (citation)- places this species in synonym with a species 
   	Schizopora venenosa O. Schmidt - also in synonym with it is 
   	Celidotes venenosa Diesing
   Gamble FW 1893 (citation)- reports this from Plymouth Sound- Active yellow form - from
   	Europe generally.
   Bohmig L 1895 (citation)- in list p 44.
   Fuhrmann O 1896 (citation) and Fuhrmann O 1898 (citation)- listed and ecological notes.
   Graff L v 1904 (citation)- Mentions. 
   Lohner L 1910 (citation)- on diagram parenchyma in.
   Lohner L, Micoletzky H 1911	(citation)- frontal gland p 387 with illustration and diagram.	
   Luther A 1912 (citation)- mentions this species.
   Wilhelmi J 1913 (citation)- outline p 23.
   Steinbock O 1933 (citation)- synonym notes- 	
   Southern R 1936 (citation)- Reports from Ireland.
   Westblad E 1942 (citation)- p 27 reports von Graff says egg cells take up eggs into
   	their cytoplasm- he says this is an error. 
   Westblad E 1945 (citation)- discusses this species in comparison with other species in the genus.
   	Notes eyes in p 7.		
   Westblad E 1948 (citation)- p 25 only acoel with eyes with lenses.  p 34 description of 
   	copulatory organs.  p 52 penis an exception to general rule for family Proporidae.
   Westblad E 1954 (citation)- reports this seldom in Norway, only one specimen in Laminaria 
   	(at about 20 m)- probably a southern species.  Occurence: N. Atlantic (Concarneau,
   	the English Channel), the Mediterranean coasts and the Black Sea.		
   Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- lists a good species- with subspecies as in Dorjes J 1971 (citation).
   Dorjes J 1971 (citation)- places Schizopora venenosa in synonymy - illustrated.
   	Complete list of synonymy, description and defninition p 113-116 and p 132-133.
   	Notes 3 subspecies here - p 132- veneosus, violaceous, and viridiflavus.
   Dorjes J, Karling TG	1975 (citation)- Britain, Adriatic, etc.- Swedish Museum of Natural History.
   Hendelberg J 1977 (citation)- electron microscopy on spermatozoa.  9+2 axonemes.

[translated from Doerjes 1971]

Proporus venenosus (O Schmidt 1852)
    Schizopora venenosa: O Schmidt 1852, Uljanin 1870, Pereyaslawzewa 1892
    Proporus venenosus: Graff 1882, 1886; Gamble 1893, 1904; Fuhrmann 1896, 1898;
        Vatova 1928; Stenbock 1933; Westblad 1945, 1948; Ax 1959
    P. v. venenosus: Graff 1904, 1905; Sabussow 1905; Mikoletzky 1910;
        Riedl 1953, 1956, 1959; Westblad 1954
    P. v. violaceus: Graff 1882; Riedl 1953, 1956, 1959
    P. v. viridoflavus: Riedl 1959 (first Steinbock 1933)
distribution: Black See (Sebastopol), European Mediterranean (Naples, Messina,
    Lesina, Triest, Rovinj), French Atlantic coast (Concerneau), English Channel
    (Plymouth), Norwegian west coast (Bergen)

Schmidt first described fr Mediterranean 1852;
Graff 1882 moved into Proporus and added his own description;
    specimens had green-yellow or violet color, so established subspecies based on color
        darker ones P. v. violaceus 
    light yellow form into P. v. venenosus  in 1904, 1905
Riedl 1959, on suggestion of Steinbock (1933), named green specimens P. v. viridiflavus

animal reported by many authors was identified simply by well-developed eyes;
    no inner anatomy (e.g., from Graff's 1882 identifying pear-shaped penis)
    Doerjes discovered two sets of sagittal sections from Westblad in Natural History Museum Stockholm

    1.0 mm long
    round in cross-section, uniformly broad
    front- and hind-end gently rounded
    epidermis completely insunk, finely-granulated, same height over all body
    numerous rhabdite glands without any special pattern of distribution
    a few widely distributed flask- and bulb-shaped mucous glands
    epidermis sharply set off proximally by circular and longitudinal fibers of body-wall muscles
        other musculature only weakly developed
    numerous strongly staining frontal glands reach far back into the front part of the body
    mouth opening in subfrontal position
    pharynx = long ciliated pharynx-simplex-tube that appears to be direct infolding of body wall
        pharyngeal musculature of outer circular and inner longitudinal fibers
        epithelium completely insunk
        isolated glands on either side of pharynx near its proximal end,
            [but] connection to pharynx uncertain
    statocyst lies over the pharynx among nerve fibers of brain
    brain, according to Graff 1882, consists of 2-lobed dorsal and 4-ganglion ventral parts
    lensed eyes, which are not recognizable any more in sections, lie in front brain lobes
        Westblad 1945 called these lobes optic lobes ("sight ganglia")
    testes follicular
    paired egg string -- no accessory organs
    male copulatory organ
        reaches far into body
        long ciliated tube with ball-shaped sem.ves., pear-shaped penis, according to Graff 1905
        Westblad's sections (fr Plymouth and Rovinj) show no penis or cirrus-like organ;
            only tube-form ciliated antrum masculinum
            and assemblage of sperm as false seminal vesicle
            (so Graff may have mistaken sperm bundle for sem. vesicle and parallel-arranged
            sperm in the sperm pocket for bulb-shaped penis built of "spindle-form cells")
Doerjes adds this from observations of Westblad's sections:
    male pore is terminal at posterior end
        body wall here turns in to form long ciliate antrum masculinum
    antr. masc. covered over whole length with outer circular and inner longit. muscles
        insunk epithelium of same structure as epidermis and pharynx epithelium
        accessory gland cells appear in small number only in
            entrance from antrum tube to muscular ves. sem.
            which is arched with its opening pore into the weakly widened lumen of the antrum tube.
        sperm plump, piston-shaped, highly ordered in sem. ves.
            thickened heads all aligned along wall of sem. ves., tails reach to exit pore
        proximal to ves. sem. is sperm bundle without wall, so is false sem. ves.
        the supposition of Westblad 1948 that tube-form antrum is everted is supported by
            Apelt's observations of such behavior in Pseudaphanostoma psammophilum

Notes from synonyms

Notes for Schizoprora venenosus

Schizoporus venenosus 
  Schmidt O 1852 (citation)-
  Carus JV 1863 (citation)- p 473 defines.
  Graff L v 1882 (citation)- gives as synonym or Proporus venenosa.
  Pereyaslawzewa D 1892 (citation)- places Proporus venenosus Graff in this genus- see Porporus
  	(places the genus Schizopora in a Tribe Pseudoacoels)
  Dorjes J 1971 (citation)- Schizopora venenosoa is synonym with Proporus venenosa. 

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