Turbellarian taxonomic database
Eukalyptorhynchia with 2 eyes (in some species may be partly or completely reduced), long sensitive cilia on
anterior and posterior body ends; proboscis cone-shaped, its proximal part with (pseudo-?) cuticular tunica.
Tunica consists of 2 parts — belt-shaped structure (or — simply — “belt”) and apex (Fig. 2: 3–10). Belt may
be homogeneous (spiny, punctated, smooth), or non-homogeneous (with knob-shaped thickenings). Apex is always
smooth. Musculo-cutaneous sac except for circular and longitudinal fibres, has diagonal row of muscles (Fig.
79: 3). Pharynx, as a rule, in anterior body third, with regular thickenings of ducts of pharyngeal glands
(usually seen in vivo as 12 brown, knob-shaped structures around pharynx body from ventral side), without
muscular knobs (Color microphotographs 1; 2: 1; 10: 1, 2; 19). Mouth opening surrounded by clearly
distinguished “mouth plate” (Color microphotograph 1). Male copulatory organ of conjuncta type with clearly
developed bulbus and papilla; as a rule, with cuticular hooks (in some species fully or partly reduced).
Four, three or two hooks of different size, form and structure, with oval or irregular basal openings and
blind distal ends (Fig. 2: 17–26), asymmetrically attached to penis at border between bulbus and papilla,
from ventral side of organ. Hooks not related to realize of sperm or any secretion. Bulbus wall with
homogeneously (most common case) or non-homogeneously developed muscle layers. Ductus ejaculatorius opens at
distal tip of papilla, its proximal enlargement, located at the bulbus basis, well developed, receives
secretion of external and internal prostatic glands and spermatozoa and therefore, functioning as vesicula
granulorum. Two large vesiculae seminalis of different form and size join together right before entering
bulbus, open to vesicula granulorum by short single duct. Protonephridial system with numerous lateral
excretory pores from both sides of caudal body end; in most species — with caudal transversal junction of the
lateral trunks. Testes, ovaries, vitellaria paired. With bursa copulatrix and uterus, canal of bursa
copulatrix with strong sphyncter, uterus may contain single cocoon.