Turbellarian taxonomic database

Acoela Polycanthiidae Notes

Hooge MD 2003 (citation) - The copulatory organ of the Polycanthiidae is entirely unique among known species of
the Acoela.  While members of the genus Pseudaphanostoma in the family Convolutidae have muscular copulatory
organs that also open terminally, their seminal vesicle musculature is not nearly as well developed, and all
members of the genus Pseudaphanostoma have invaginated penes.  
The phylogenetic position of the Polycanthiidae within the Acoela is uncertain.  In spite of the above-listed
differences between the Polycanthiidae and Pseudaphanostoma, their mutual possession of muscular, terminally
opening copulatory organs and similar body-wall musculature may be indicative of a close phylogenetic

Notes for the valid (accepted) taxonomic name

Notes for Crucimusculata Proporidae

Graff L v 1882 (citation)- give definition:
  	"Acoela with one genital opening, without female accessory apparatus (bursa seminalis),
  	with weak penis.  The single genus Proporus lacks a pharynx, the mouth opening lies behind
  	the otolith and there are two well defined eyes.  The body is small and oval, broadly 
  	round at both ends (1-1.5 mm long)". [BUSH L translation]
  Graff L v 1904 (citation)- definition "Acoela with one genital pore, without or with a bursa
  	seminalis, with ovary."

  Graff L v 1905 (citation), p 4.
	"Acoela with a single genital opening, with or without a bursa seminalis, with ovaries. 
	Testes sometimes follicular, sometimes compact (Otocelis rubropunctata, Haplodiscus).
	Location of the mouth and length of the sometimes almost completely lacking pharynx varies.
	Elongated, enrolled or platelike in form, from 018-2.5 mm.  Littoral or pelagic, one species
	(Haplodiscus incola) parasitic."  Tierreich - Graff L v 1905 (citation), p 4.  3 genera
  Hyman LH 1951 (citation)- p 128- notes there are no female organs (ducts, bursae, etc.) in this 
	family.  p 132- lists in this family "all other acoels that lack feamle ducts" includes:
	Proporus, Haplodiscus, Remicola, Achoerus, Afronta, Childia, Avagina.
  Westblad E 1948 (citation)- p 52, 55, 56 in the key take out of this family Diopisthoporidae for 
	new family and for Haploposthiidae, the genera Haploposthia, Paranaperus, Paraproporus, 
	Afronta and Childia- also remove Achoerus to the Tribe Proandropera-Abursalia.                    
  Beauchamp P de 1961 - Lists the genus Proporus.
  Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- definition of family- type genus Proporus O Schmidt 1852 (citation)
	"Acoela with long ciliated pharynx tube. Pharynx opens frontally or on ventral front end. Male
	copulatory organ opens terminally at hind end. Vesicula seminalis present; penis can be lacking.
	Antrum masculinum either long and tubiform or inconspicuous."	
	Genus Proporus "Through pigment colored or uncolored.  Outer muscle layer normal.
	Brain insunk.  Mouth opening frontal or in ventral anterior end.  This opens proximally
	into a long, ciliated pharynx tube.  Ovary paired or unpaired.  Testes diffuse.  Female
	accessory apparatus lacking.  Male copulatory organ at posterior end.  Seminal vesicle
	always present, a penis may be lacking.  Male antrum long and tube like or plain."
  Dorjes J 1971 (citation)-	
  Bohmig L 1895 (citation)- p 36, brief definition "acoels with one reproductive opening."	
  Crezee M 1975 (citation)- p 840-41- on epithelial pharynx in.
  Steinbock O 1966 (citation)- mentions p 130.	
  Wilhelmi J 1913 (citation)- lists with genera.

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