Turbellarian taxonomic database

Acoela Haploposthiidae

Westblad E 1948 (citation)- p 52 sets up this family as having "a ventral mouth without a pharynx
	combined with Proporidae characteristic reproductive system." 

	p 55-56, key as follows:

	Tribe Opisthandropora- Abursalia
	Family Haploposthidae- "Mouth ventrl.  Pharynx open.  Male and female gonads with respect to
		position and appearance variable but never combined into a compact gondad unit.
		A1- Male antrum +- long and tube shaped.  
			B1- Reproductive glands [gonads] often mixed but the 
				female +- lying dorsally----------------------------------genus Haploposthia
			B2- male and female gondads separate, both the male and the female paired;
				the female gonad lying ventrally--------------------------genus Paranaperus
		A2- Male antrum short
			B1- A short penis; small and +- round in cross section
				C1- Frontal glands small (not "a frontal organ"); ovary unpaired;
					copulatory organ with weak cutecularized needles------genus Paraproporus
				C2- Frontal glands lacking.  Ovaries paired.  Copulatory organs without
					cuticular needles-------------------------------------genus Afronta (Hyman)
			B2- Double, stylet formed penis.  Fairly large, flat shape----genus Childia
Marcus E 1950 (citation)- points out family is characterized by absense of a pharynx.  genera belonging
	to it are characterized as follows:
		Haploposthia- colored rhabdite gland
		Paranaperus- a penis and spacious atrium
		Paraproporus- by penis rods
		Childia- double copulatory organs
		Afronta- 1 species only with orange spots
		Kuma- large frontal glands, short atrium and no penis cuticularized atrium.
Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- p 94-95.  Definition- "Acoels with very simple copulatory organs.  These 
	consist of a tube-shaped male antrum and a keg-like seminal vesicle.  Both the antrum as
	well as the vesicle can be mutually or entirely lacking.  As penis is not formed 
	[Haploposthia albiventer Marcus and H. rubra (An der Lan) with an extremely small penis
	papilla].  Male reproductive opening terminal, subterminal or ventral.  Mouth opening ventral."
	Type of family: genus Haploposthia An der Lan 1936- 11 genera with 32 species.
	1.  Haploposthia		7.  Parahaplogonaria
	2.  Afronta				8.  Parahaploposthia
	3.  Kuma				9.  Pseudohaplogonaria
	4.  Adenocauda			10. Pseudokuma
	5.  Deuterogonaria 		11. Simplicomorpha
	6.  Haplogonaria		
	Discussion of family on p 95, p 95-96 key to genera.
Faubel A 1976 (citation)- lists.
Ehlers U, Doerjes J 1979 (citation)- discussion p 29, 48, and 70.
Faubel A 1983 (citation)- p 26, notes ciliated male tract here.

Raikova OI 1989 (citation)- "The fine structure of the nervous system of both plexus-type and that with formed
nerve trunks was studied in representatives of four families of Acoela."  Families and species studied
        Haploposthia opisthorchis
        Actinoposthia beklemischevi
        Anaperus biaculeatus
        Aphanostoma virescens

Descriptions of synapses, vesciles with granules in neurites, sensillae as associated fine structure are